For security reasons, Kubernetes secrets are usually the only resource that cannot be managed with a GitOps workflow. Instead of managing secrets outside GitOps and having to use a third-party tool like Vault, SealedSecrets provide a way to keep all the advantages of using a GitOps workflow while avoiding exposing secrets. SealedSecrets is composed of two main components:
- A CLI (Kubeseal) to encrypt secrets.
- A cluster-side controller to decrypt the sealed secrets into regular Kubernetes secrets. Only this controller can decrypt sealed secrets (not even the original author).
The following tutorial will cover how to install these two components, configure the controller, and add/remove sealed secrets.
The instructions below are used as an example. For instructions on the latest release, see https://github.com/bitnami-labs/sealed-secrets/releases. For full documentation on SealedSecrets, see https://github.com/bitnami-labs/sealed-secrets.
Install Kubeseal CLI to encrypt your secrets
brew install kubeseal
wget https://github.com/bitnami-labs/sealed-secrets/releases/download/v0.12.4/kubeseal-linux-amd64 -O kubeseal sudo install -m 755 kubeseal /usr/local/bin/kubeseal
Install the SealedSecrets controller on your cluster
This controller will be able to decrypt SealedSecrets and create Kubernetes secrets.
Create the controller:
kubectl apply -f https://github.com/bitnami-labs/sealed-secrets/releases/download/v0.12.4/controller.yaml
Fetch the certificate that you will use to encrypt your secrets into sealed secrets:
kubeseal --fetch-cert > mycert.pem
mycert.pemto your git repo.
Adding a secret
Secrets can be securely added to Git using sealed secrets:
Create a Kubernetes secret and pipe it into kubeseal using the certificate
mycert.pemthat you fetched from the controller in the setup:
echo '---' >> secrets.yaml kubectl create secret -n dispatch generic mysecret --dry-run -o yaml --from-literal=my-secret=value | \ kubeseal --format yaml --cert mycert.pem >> secrets.yaml
Go to the end of
secrets.yamlwhere you just added your new sealed secret. Remove any “creationTimestamp” fields from the yaml.
kubectl apply -f secrets.yaml. If you don’t have permission, commit your changes to the repo and let FluxCD apply the changes for you.
The sealed secret controller will then decrypt the sealed secret and generate a Kubernetes secret from it. Your secret got successfully created by running:
kubectl get secret mysecret -n dispatch -o yaml
If your sealed secret got created successfully but did not generate the matching secret, look at the logs of the controller:
kubectl logs -l=name=sealed-secrets-controller -n kube-system
secrets.yamlto your repo if you haven’t already done so in step 3.
Removing a secret
Following the same example from above in “Adding a secret”, now remove the manifest for
secrets.yamland commit those changes to the repo.
Delete the sealed secret in the cluster:
kubectl delete SealedSecret mysecret
Delete the secret itself:
kubectl delete secret mysecret
Rotating the controller’s sealing key
For added security, it’s a good practice to rotate the key the controller uses to decrypt sealed secrets. By default, the controller generates a new key every 30 days. When this happens, you need to update the certificate you use to create sealed secrets by fetching the latest one:
kubeseal --fetch-cert > mycert.pem
Note: Don’t forget to commit it back to the repo!
In a disaster case, let’s say your cluster gets destroyed, you would lose all your sealing keys, so you would not be able to recreate all the secrets from the sealed secrets in your GitOps repo. For this reason, you might want to back up the sealing keys. To do this every time a new sealing key is generated, run:
kubectl get secret -n kube-system -l sealedsecrets.bitnami.com/sealed-secrets-key -o yaml > sealing-key
sealing-key with the others in a safe location such as OneLogin Notes or Vault.
To restore from a backup after a disaster, recreate all of the sealing keys with
kubectl apply -f sealing-key1 sealing-key2 ... before starting the controller. If the controller was already started, restart it:
kubectl delete pod -n kube-system -l name=sealed-secrets-controller
To disable sealing key rotation (e.g. for a test environment), configure the controller’s command in the pod template with
--key-renew-period=0 (see sample yaml below).
Pod Template: Labels: name=sealed-secrets-controller Service Account: sealed-secrets-controller Containers: sealed-secrets-controller: Image: quay.io/bitnami/sealed-secrets-controller:v0.9.8 Port: 8080/TCP Host Port: 0/TCP Command: controller --key-renew-period=0
If required, edit the controller’s manifest with
kubectl edit deployment.apps/sealed-secrets-controller -n kube-system